Thermal and electrochemical stability of organosilicon electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

TitleThermal and electrochemical stability of organosilicon electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsChen, X, Usrey, M, Pena-Hueso, A, West, R, Hamers, RJ
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume241
Pagination311-319
Date PublishedNov
ISBN Number0378-7753
Keywordscells, chemistry, decomposition, Electrolyte, Hydrolysis, lipf6, lipf6-based electrolytes, Lithium-ion battery, mechanism, Organosilicon, performance, siloxane-based electrolyte, stability, Thermal
Abstract

Organosilicon (OS) electrolytes that integrate an ethylene glycol oligomer with a trimethylsilane head group are promising substitutes for commercial carbonate-based electrolytes because of their low flammability and their high electrochemical and thermal stability. To explore the factors that control thermal and electrochemical stability of these compounds, we developed a real-time headspace analysis apparatus with a mass spectrometer to detect the evolution of decomposition products during thermal cycling and during electrochemical measurements. Here we present mass spectroscopy, XPS, and SEM results exploring the thermal stability of [2-[2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]trimethylsilane (1NM3) with LiPF6, and its electrochemical stability against graphite anodes and LiCoO2 cathodes. Our results show that 1NM3 + LiPF6 shows no significant decomposition below 100 degrees C and at potentials below 4.5 V. At higher temperatures and/or potentials, decomposition of LiPF6 induces hydrolysis of 1NM3. Our results show that LiPF6 decomposition is the limiting factor controlling stability of 1NM3 + LiPF6 electrolytes and also provide fundamental insights into the molecular bonds of 1NM3 that are attacked by PF5 and its decomposition products. Full-cell measurements of 1NM3 + LiPF6 + vinyl carbonate show Coulombic efficiencies of >99.6%. These results point the way to new molecular structures that may have even further enhanced electrochemical and thermal stability. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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